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“Estimates on the death toll vary between locations leading to a total of 100,000 or more,[1] from nearly 9,000 in the Ukrainian SSR,[2] to 20,000–30,000 in occupied eastern Poland,[3]now Western Ukraine, to all Tartar prisoners in Crimea among other places.[4]Not all prisoner victims (150,000 of them in total)[3] were murdered; some were transported into the interior, others were abandoned or managed to escape because the retreating Soviet executioners logistically could not pay attention to all of them.[5]

The NKVD and the Red Army killed prisoners in many places from Poland (e.g. Białystok) to Crimea.[7] Immediately after the start of the German invasion of the USSR, the NKVD commenced the execution of large numbers of prisoners in most of their prisons, while the remainder were to be evacuated in death marches.[8][9] Most of them were political prisoners, imprisoned and executed without a trial. The massacres were documented by German authorities and used in anti-Soviet and anti-Jewish propaganda.[10][11][12] With few exceptions, the huge group of prisoners of Western Belarusand Western Ukraine was either marched eastwards or executed.[8] After the war and in recent years, the authorities of Germany, Poland, Belarus, and Israel identified no fewer than 25 prisons whose prisoners were killed—and a much larger number of mass execution sites.[8] Among the notable cases of such mass execution of prisoners were the following:”