1974, we are blessed to have a backhoe that does all that heavy back work for me! My pile would never be turned if I had to do it by hand. We just moved the pile so it would be close to where I needed it, and it is so much better. The current issue is that it is used up! My gardens ate every bit of it, so now all I have left is the compost that the chickens make in their yard. It is well turned (by them), fertilized (by them), and watered when I go out to change out the water, plus the rain of the spring season right now. It must be a good 10-12″ deep now and all ready. I am just leaving it there right now till I get all this kitchen stuff done. After that, it will go out onto the compost pile and the chickens will begin with fresh stuff. They love it, I love it and the garden loves it! Win, win, win here in Texas!